Saturday, 11 November 2017

How to Adminster First-Aid Part 2

This is a follow-up  to our write-up on " How to Administer First-Aid Part 1"

Having a little knowledge of what to do can actually be the difference between life & death when accidents occur. You also have to make a decision on which person to treat first in cases of multiple causalities. In part 1 you were told to be safety conscious when approaching an injured person and also to place priority on someone who is breathing first. The next thing to look out for is whether the heart is beating. 

Check whether the Heart is Beating.

Take the pulse to check whether the heart is still beating. Put your
fingers on the front of the wrist,just below the thumb at the lower end of the forearm to check the pulse at the wrist. 

To take the pulse at the neck, turn the face to one side & press your fingers  under the jaw next to the windpipe. 
The normal pulse rate for the relaxed adult is 60-80 beats per minute. For a child it is 90-140 beats per minute. In high-stress situations, it can spike as high as 240, though a heart attack is very close at that point.
Use your watch to count the beats in thirty seconds & then double it. If you cannot feel a pulse & the pupils of the eyes are much larger than normal start cardiac compression. This is meant to reactivate the heart.

"The Kiss of Life"   

If the victim isn't breathing we apply the kiss of life.

Procedure for applying the Kiss of Life

  1. Lay the victim on their back.
  2. Tilt the head back.
  3. Keep the jaws open & nostrils closed.
  4. Check airway is clear with a finger.
  5. Place mouth over patient's mouth & blow firmly. It takes more effort than you might expect to inflate someone else's chest.

Watch for the chest to rise, & take your mouth away. Repeat this five or six times in succession. After that, get a rhythm going of one breath every five seconds. After ten or twelve, begin cardiac compression.
With a baby, put your mouth over the nose & mouth & use short gentle breaths twenty times per minute. A baby's lungs can be damaged by too much forceful treatment.

Cardiac Compression 

Cardiac compression is only done if the heart is not beating.

Procedure for Cardiac Compression

  1. First thump hard onto the center of the chest & check to see if the heart has restarted.
  2. Place heel of hands on the breastbone.
  3. With arms straight, push down about 1.5 inches (4 cm)
  4. Do this four or five times between breaths, counting aloud.

Never try compression when the heart is beating, even if it is very faint. This could stop the heart. 
Check for a pulse after one minute & at three-minute intervals.Do not give up. As soon as a pulse is detected, stop compression but continue mouth-to-mouth until the patient is breathing normally, then put them into the recovery position.  

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